# programming pointers

## Data Structures and Algorithms in Python – Graphs

### Graph Implementation – Adjacency list

• We’ve used dictionaries to implement the adjacency list in Python which is the easiest way.
• To implement Graph ADT we’ll create two classes, Graph, which holds the master list of vertices, and Vertex, which will represent each vertex in the graph.
• Each Vertex uses a dictionary to keep track of the vertices to which it is connected, and the weight of each edge. This dictionary is called connectedTo.
``````<span class="pl-c"># Create six vertices numbered 0 through 5. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># Display the vertex dictionary</span>
g <span class="pl-k">=</span> Graph()
<span class="pl-k">for</span> i <span class="pl-k">in</span> <span class="pl-c1">range</span>(<span class="pl-c1">6</span>):
<span class="pl-c1">print</span>(g.vertList)

<span class="pl-c"># Add the edges that connect the vertices together</span>
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">0</span>,<span class="pl-c1">1</span>,<span class="pl-c1">5</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">0</span>,<span class="pl-c1">5</span>,<span class="pl-c1">2</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">1</span>,<span class="pl-c1">2</span>,<span class="pl-c1">4</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">2</span>,<span class="pl-c1">3</span>,<span class="pl-c1">9</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">3</span>,<span class="pl-c1">4</span>,<span class="pl-c1">7</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">3</span>,<span class="pl-c1">5</span>,<span class="pl-c1">3</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">4</span>,<span class="pl-c1">0</span>,<span class="pl-c1">1</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">5</span>,<span class="pl-c1">4</span>,<span class="pl-c1">8</span>)
g.addEdge(<span class="pl-c1">5</span>,<span class="pl-c1">2</span>,<span class="pl-c1">1</span>)
<span class="pl-c"># Nested loop verifies that each edge in the graph is properly stored. </span>
<span class="pl-k">for</span> v <span class="pl-k">in</span> g:
<span class="pl-k">for</span> w <span class="pl-k">in</span> v.getConnections():
<span class="pl-c1">print</span>(<span class="pl-s"><span class="pl-pds">"</span>( <span class="pl-c1">%s</span> , <span class="pl-c1">%s</span> )<span class="pl-pds">"</span></span> <span class="pl-k">%</span> (v.getId(), w.getId()))``````

### Graph Implementation – Solving Word Ladder Problem using Breadth First Search (BFS)</h1>

let’s consider the following puzzle called a word ladder. Transform the word “FOOL” into the word “SAGE”. In a word ladder puzzle you must make the change occur gradually by changing one letter at a time. At each step you must transform one word into another word, you are not allowed to transform a word into a non-word. The following sequence of words shows one possible solution to the problem posed above.

• FOOL
• POOL
• POLL
• POLE
• PALE
• SALE
• SAGE

This is implemented using dictionary

``````<span class="pl-c"># The Graph class, contains a dictionary that maps vertex names to vertex objects.</span>
<span class="pl-c"># Graph() creates a new, empty graph.</span>
Graph()

buildGraph()

<span class="pl-c">#BFS begins at the starting vertex s and colors start gray to show that </span>
<span class="pl-c">#it is currently being explored. Two other values, the distance and the </span>
<span class="pl-c">#predecessor, are initialized to 0 and None respectively for the starting</span>
<span class="pl-c">#vertex. Finally, start is placed on a Queue. The next step is to begin </span>
<span class="pl-c">#to systematically explore vertices at the front of the queue. We explore </span>
<span class="pl-c">#each new node at the front of the queue by iterating over its adjacency </span>
<span class="pl-c">#list. As each node on the adjacency list is examined its color is </span>
<span class="pl-c">#checked. If it is white, the vertex is unexplored, and four things happen:</span>
<span class="pl-c">#	* The new, unexplored vertex nbr, is colored gray.</span>
<span class="pl-c">#	* The predecessor of nbr is set to the current node currentVert</span>
<span class="pl-c">#The distance to nbr is set to the distance to currentVert + 1</span>
<span class="pl-c">#nbr is added to the end of a queue. Adding nbr to the end of the queue </span>
<span class="pl-c">#effectively schedules this node for further exploration, but not until all the </span>
<span class="pl-c">#other vertices on the adjacency list of currentVert have been explored.</span>

bfs()``````

### Graph Implementation – Solving Knight tour problem using Depth First Search (DFS)</h1>

The knight’s tour puzzle is played on a chess board with a single chess piece, the knight. The object of the puzzle is to find a sequence of moves that allow the knight to visit every square on the board exactly once. One such sequence is called a “tour.”
we will solve the problem using two main steps: Represent the legal moves of a knight on a chessboard as a graph. Use a graph algorithm to find a path of length rows×columns−1rows×columns−1 where every vertex on the graph is visited exactly once. To represent the knight’s tour problem as a graph we will use the following two ideas: Each square on the chessboard can be represented as a node in the graph. Each legal move by the knight can be represented as an edge in the graph.

``````<span class="pl-c"># The Graph class, contains a dictionary that maps vertex names to vertex objects.</span>
<span class="pl-c"># Graph() creates a new, empty graph.</span>
Graph()

<span class="pl-c"># To represent the knight’s tour problem as a graph we will use the </span>
<span class="pl-c"># following two ideas: Each square on the chessboard can be represented </span>
<span class="pl-c"># as a node in the graph. Each legal move by the knight can be represented</span>
<span class="pl-c"># as an edge in the graph. </span>

knightGraph()

<span class="pl-c"># The genLegalMoves function takes the position of the knight on the </span>
<span class="pl-c"># board and generates each of the eight possible moves. The legalCoord </span>
<span class="pl-c"># helper function makes sure that a particular move that is generated is </span>
<span class="pl-c"># still on the board.</span>
genLegalMoves()

<span class="pl-c"># DFS implementation</span>

<span class="pl-c"># we will look at two algorithms that implement a depth first search. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># The first algorithm we will look at directly solves the knight’s tour </span>
<span class="pl-c"># problem by explicitly forbidding a node to be visited more than once. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># The second implementation is more general, but allows nodes to be visited </span>
<span class="pl-c"># more than once as the tree is constructed. The second version is used in </span>
<span class="pl-c"># subsequent sections to develop additional graph algorithms.</span>

<span class="pl-c"># The depth first exploration of the graph is exactly what we need in </span>
<span class="pl-c"># order to find a path that has exactly 63 edges. We will see that when </span>
<span class="pl-c"># the depth first search algorithm finds a dead end (a place in the graph </span>
<span class="pl-c"># where there are no more moves possible) it backs up the tree to the next</span>
<span class="pl-c"># deepest vertex that allows it to make a legal move.</span>

<span class="pl-c"># The knightTour function takes four parameters: n, the current depth in </span>
<span class="pl-c"># the search tree; path, a list of vertices visited up to this point; u, </span>
<span class="pl-c"># the vertex in the graph we wish to explore; and limit the number of nodes </span>
<span class="pl-c"># in the path. The knightTour function is recursive. When the knightTour </span>
<span class="pl-c"># function is called, it first checks the base case condition. If we have </span>
<span class="pl-c"># a path that contains 64 vertices, we return from knightTour with a status </span>
<span class="pl-c"># of True, indicating that we have found a successful tour. If the path is not </span>
<span class="pl-c"># long enough we continue to explore one level deeper by choosing a new vertex </span>
<span class="pl-c"># to explore and calling knightTour recursively for that vertex.</span>

<span class="pl-c"># DFS also uses colors to keep track of which vertices in the graph have been visited. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># Unvisited vertices are colored white, and visited vertices are colored gray. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># If all neighbors of a particular vertex have been explored and we have not yet reached </span>
<span class="pl-c"># our goal length of 64 vertices, we have reached a dead end. When we reach a dead end we </span>
<span class="pl-c"># must backtrack. Backtracking happens when we return from knightTour with a status of False. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># In the breadth first search we used a queue to keep track of which vertex to visit next. </span>
<span class="pl-c"># Since depth first search is recursive, we are implicitly using a stack to help us with </span>
<span class="pl-c"># our backtracking. When we return from a call to knightTour with a status of False, in line 11, </span>
<span class="pl-c"># we remain inside the while loop and look at the next vertex in nbrList.</span>

knightTour()

``````

Please check GitHub for the full working code.

I will keep adding more problems/solutions.

Stay tuned!

Ref:  The inspiration of implementing DS in Python is from this course